Deep New Zealand Index

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abyssal plain 19 , 28, 29, 49, 147
abyssal zone 40 , 41
Abyssobrotula galatheae 190
Acanella 98
Acanthephyra eximia 131
Acanthephyra pelagica 131
Acanthostomella minutissima 85 , 85
Acheron, HMSV (survey vessel) 221
Aciculites pulchra 87
acorn worms 102, 105, 105
acoustic surveys 46
Actinopterygii 161, 171
Acutiserolis bromleyana 131, 140 , 140
Adipicola 74, 112, 113
Aeginura grimaldii 45, 93
Aeneator recens 110, 111
Aglaophenia ctenata 90 , 90
Aglaura hemistoma 93
agnathans 161
Agrostichthys parkeri 184
albacore tuna 191
albatrosses 13, 197-200, 197, 199
Aldrovandia affinis 171 , 171
alfonsino 186, 218
algae 34, 67, 80, 81, 85
Allocyttus niger 188
alternation of generations 90, 158
Alvin (submersible) 46, 192
Alvinocaris 77 , 77
ambergris 61, 61
Amblyraja hyperborea 169
ammonia 48, 118, 119
Amphipoda 139, 140, 140
Amphitretus pelagicus 122, 123
ancestrula 153
Anemonactis 95 , 95
anglerfishes 53, 182, 183, 183
Anguilla 44
annelids (true worms) 102-04
Anomura 135, 138
Anoplogaster cornuta 44 , 45, 186 , 187
Anoplogasteridae 186
Antarctic krill 132
Antarctic minke whale 207
Anthozoa 95
anti-cancer drugs 87, 153, 219
anti-fouling agents 87
Antimora rostrata 180
Antipatharia 96
Antipathes fiordensis 96, 97 , 97
Antipodes ( submersible) 41 , 222
Aplacophora 107
Appendicularia 71, 159, 159 , 160
Araeosoma 146
Architeuthis dux 114 , 115, 116
Argentiniformes 174
Argonauta nodosa 122, 123
Argyropelecus aculeatus 175
Argyropelecus gigas 53, 175
Aristaeopsis edwardsiana 131
Aristotle's lantern 146
arrow squid 25
arrow worms (chaetognaths) 102, 104, 104 , 105
arthropods 125-140
Ascidiacea (ascidians) 156-57
aspidochirotids 149
Asteroidea 142
Astrobrachion constrictum 97 , 97, 144
Astronesthes 176, 176
Astropecten 143
Aulopiformes 178
Aurelia 89
Auxis thazard 191
Aves 197

bacteria 48, 49, 52, 66, 68, 69, 74, 76-78, 80, 88, 112, 113
Balaena glacialis 205
Balaenidae 205
Balaenoptera acutorostrata 206, 207
Balaenoptera bonaerensis 207
Balaenoptera borealis 207
Balaenoptera edeni 207, 207
Balaenoptera musculus musculus 205
Balaenopteridae 205
baleen plates 205
baleen whales 201, 205, 205
bamboo corals 98, 98 , 99
banded sea snake 196
Barbourisia rufa 187 , 187
Barbourisiidae 186, 187
barnacles 61, 61 , 126, 129-131, 129-131
barrel salps 140
basket stars 141, 144, 145
basking shark 166, 167
Batham, Dr Elizabeth 95, 97, 222
Bathymodiolus 77, 78, 144
Bathypathes platycaulus 217
bathypelagic zone 40 , 41
Bathyplotes natans 149 , 149
Bathypterois 178, 178
Bathyraja richardsoni 168
Bathyraja shuntovi 168
Bathysauridae 178
Bathysaurus ferox 178, 179, 179
bathyscaph 30, 148, 221
Baxter's lantern shark 163, 164
beach strandings 60, 60 , 61, 61 , 118, 138, 184, 194
beaked whales 201, 204
benthic lander 72
Benthoctopus 121
Beroe 101
Berycidae 186
Beryciformes 186
bigeye tuna 191
bigscale fishes 186
billfishes 191
biodiversity 24, 38, 73, 75, 216, 219
bioluminescence 41, 51-53, 51, 52 ,93, 94, 99, 101, 113 , 116,120, 121,124, 131, 132, 157, 159, 164, 173-77, 179, 182
biomass 29, 41, 66, 68, 72, 76, 147, 200, 212, 222
birds 197-200
Bivalvia (bivalves) 106, 112, 113
black cardinal fish 212
black corals 96, 97, 97 , 217
black marlin 192
black oreo 188
black sea dragons 177, 177
black smokers 76, 77
black swallower 192, 193, 193
black-browed mollymawk 198 , 199
blastozooid 158, 159
blind lobsters 132, 133
blind shrimp 77 , 77
blue grenadier 181
blue shark 43 , 166, 167
blue whale 205
bluebottle 50, 60 , 61, 94, 94 , 106
bluefin tuna 62, 191
blue-green algae 80
Bollon's seamount 24 , 25, 37
bony fishes 161, 171-194
Bothidae 193
Bounty Channel 28, 28
Brachiopoda 154, 155
Brachyura 138
Brendella pulchra 152
bristlemouths 174, 174
brittle star 141, 144, 144
broadbill swordfish 191
Brothers Caldera seamount 131
Bryde's whale 207, 207
Bryozoa 32, 33 , 151-53, 151-53
bubblegum coral 98, 98 , 217, 217
bubble-net fishing (humpback whales) 208
Buller's mollymawk 198 , 200
buoyancy 48, 84, 94, 106, 119, 204
by-catch 119, 162, 170, 184, 200, 214, 215
by-the-wind-sailor 106

Caelorinchus 51, 182 , 182
calcareous ooze 33
calcium carbonate 33, 86, 152
Calliostoma alertae 110 , 111
Calyptogena 78 , 78
camouflage 50, 53
Campbell Plateau 25, 37, 57
cancer (anti-cancer drugs) 87, 153, 219
canyons (submarine) 25-27, 26
cape pigeon 200, 200
captacula 108
carbon dioxide 40, 65, 69, 70, 80, 129
Carcharhinidae 166
Carcharodon carcharias 168
Careproctus 136
Carinaria 112 , 112
carotenoids 50
Cavolinia 35
Celleporaria emancipata 27
Centrobranchus nigroocellatus 180
Centroscymnus coelolepis 165
Cephalopoda 106, 114-124
Ceramaster patagonicus 143 , 143
ceratioid anglerfishes 182, 183
Cetacea 201-08
Cetomimidae 187
Cetorhinidae 166
Cetorhinus maximus 166 , 167
Chaetognatha (arrow worms) 102, 104, 104 , 105
Challenger Plateau 24 , 25, 34
Challenger , HMS (research vessel) 31, 31 , 36, 221
channel (in sea-bed) 28, 28
Chatham Rise 24 , 25, 37, 57, 57 , 58, 60, 210-214, 221, 222
Chauliodus sloani 175, 176, 176
Cheilostomata 152
Chelonia (turtles) 195
Chiasmodon niger 192, 193 , 193
Chiasmodontidae 193
Chimaera panthera 170
Chimaeridae 169, 170
chirostylid squat lobsters 138
Chirostylus rogeri 138
Chiroteuthis 119, 119
chitons 106, 108, 108
Chlamydoselachus anguineus 163 , 163
chlorophyll 67, 67
choanocytes 86
Chondrichthyes 161, 162
Chordata 156
Chorocaris 77
Cidaroida 146
cirrate octopuses 123, 123 , 124
Cirripedia (barnacles) 129
Cirroteuthis magna 123
Cirsotrema zelebori 110, 111
clams 33, 77, 78 , 106, 112
Clavularia 98
clays 31, 32, 35, 36
climate change 15, 34, 218
Clio 112
cnidae (stinging cells) 90
Cnidaria 89-99
coat-of-mail shells (chitons) 108
coccolithophores 34, 34 , 66, 85, 85
cod 180
Codonella elongata 85
cold seeps 217
Colobonema sericeum 93 , 93
Colossendeis 125
Columbus crab 138
Coluzea mariae 110, 111
Colville Ridge 22
Comatulida (feather stars) 150, 150
comb jelly 100, 100 , 101, 101
common dolphin 201, 201 , 202, 202
Concentricycloidea 150, 222
continental drift 30
continental margin 59
continental shelf 18, 19, 19 , 32, 214, 222
continental slope 18, 19, 26-29, 222
cookie-cutter shark 164, 164
copepodites 128
copepods 66, 66 , 69, 126-29, 127, 128 , 140
Corallistes 87
corals 32, 33, 37, 38, 38 , 89-92, 91 , 95-99, 96-98 , 144, 151-53, 214, 217, 218, 218, 221
Coriolis Force 55
Coryphaena hippurus 192, 192
Coryphaenidae 192
Coryphaenoides subserrulatus 51
counter-current circulation (in fish) 168, 190, 191
crabs 135-38
Cranchiidae 49 , 119, 120, 120
crinoids 149, 149 , 150
Crocodylus porosus 196
crust (Earth's) 22, 23 , 28-30, 75
Crustacea 126-140
ctenophores 100, 100 , 101, 101
cup coral 96, 96
currents (oceanic) 53, 54, 54 , 55-59, 57 , 218
cusk eel 190
Cuspidaria fairchildi 113, 113
cuttlebone 60
Cyanea capillata 94
cyanobacteria 80
Cyclothone braueri
174
Cyclothone microdon 174, 174
Cyphocaris 140, 140
cyprid (barnacle larva) 130, 131
Cyttus traversi 188, 189 

Dalatias licha 164, 164
Dana Expedition 221
Daption capense 200, 200
dark ghost shark 170
dealfish 61, 184, 184
decapods 131, 132
decoys (to avoid predation) 53, 93, 119, 121
deep scattering layer 46, 47
deep-water marine sanctuaries 219
Delphinus delphis 201, 201 , 202, 202
Demospongiae 87
dense-beaked whale 204
deposit feeding 73, 104, 105, 143, 144, 147, 148
depth zones 40, 40 , 41
Dermechinus horridus 146 , 146
Dermochelys coriacea 195 , 195
Desmophyllum dianthus 96
destruction of the sea bed 214
Diacanthurus rubricatus 135, 136
Diacria trispinosa 110, 112
diatoms 33, 48, 66, 82, 83, 83
dinoflagellates 81, 82, 82
Diomedea 197
Diomedea epomophora 197
Diomedea sanfordi 198
Diomedeidae 197
Diplocrinus 149
Discovery (research vessel) 221
diving petrel 200
dogfishes 163, 164
doliolids 157
dolomite chimneys 78
dolphinfishes 192
dolphins 201, 201 , 202, 202
dories 15, 187, 188, 189 , 212, 222
dragonfishes 174
dredges 214
dwarf minke 206, 207

earbones 119, 211
East Pacific Rise 75
Echinocardium 147
Echinodermata 141-150
Echinoidea 144
echiurans 102
echo sounder 44, 46, 62, 94, 179, 219
echo-location 117, 204
eddies 55, 58-60, 63, 119, 135
eels 44, 172, 172 , 173, 173 , 190
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) 15, 15 , 18-20, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 161, 214, 218, 219, 222
elasipodid sea cucumbers 147-49
Elasmobranchii 162
electric organs 169
electric rays 169
elopomorphs 171
Endeavour (vessel) 37, 221
Enypniastes eximia 148, 149
epipelagic zone 40 , 49
Epizoanthus 95, 96 , 96, 136
Eptatretus cirrhatus 161 , 162
Errina novaezelandiae 91 , 91, 92
Essex ( Nantucket whaling vessel) 129
Etmopterus baxteri 164
Etmopterus lucifer 163 , 163
Euciroa galatheae 113, 113
Euphausia similis 132
Euphausia superba 132
euphausiids 132
Euprotomicrus bispinatus 163
Eurypharyngidae 173
Eurypharynx pelecanoides 173, 173
euteleosts 171, 174
Evermannella balbo 179 , 179
Evermannellidae 179
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 15, 15, 18-20, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 161, 214, 218, 219, 222
extraterrestrial material 35, 36

fangtooth 44, 45, 161 , 186, 187
feather stars 149, 150, 150
filter feeding 73, 87, 112, 149, 150, 152, 155-160, 166, 193, 205
finless flounder 193, 194
finned octopuses 114, 123
Fiordland 144, 147

Fisheries Act (1996) 218, 219
fishes 161-194
fishing impact (on marine ecosystem) 69, 74, 96, 98, 211-19
Fissidentalium zelandicum 108, 108
flabby whalefishes 187
flatfishes 193
flatworms 102
flounders 193, 193
food webs 65, 66, 68, 69, 81, 126, 128, 156, 160, 213
Foraminifera (forams) 33, 33 , 34
foraminiferan ooze 33, 34
frigate tuna 191
frill shark 163, 163
front (water mass) 57, 58
fulmars 200
Fusitriton magellanicus 110 , 111

Gadiformes 180, 182
Galathea (research vessel) 30, 107, 190, 221
Galatheoidea 138
Gastropoda 106, 108-110
genetic diversity (of fish) 213
ghost sharks 161, 162, 169, 170, 170
ghostflatheads 189, 189
giant hatchetfish 175
giant squid 114-16, 115 , 118, 222
Gigantocypris muelleri 129 , 129
glass octopus 121, 121
glass rope sponge 75
glass sponges 75, 88 , 88
Glaucus atlanticus 50 , 50, 61
global warming 34, 65, 69, 70
Globicephala macrorhynchus 202
Globicephala melas 202
Globigerina bulloides 33
Glomar Challenger (research vessel) 222
Glyphocrangon 131
goblin shark 165, 165 , 166, 166
gold (in sea-water) 43
golden volute 110, 111
Goniocidaris parasol 146
Goniocorella dumosa 37, 38, 96, 96, 217
goose barnacles 61, 61 , 129, 129 , 130
gorgonian corals 98, 98 , 99
Gorgonocephalus 144 , 145
great white shark 168
grenadiers 51 , 182
grey-headed mollymawks 199
gulper eel 173, 173
gyres 55

hadal zone 30, 40, 41
hagfish 69 , 161, 162, 162
hake 180
Haliphron atlanticus 222
halosaurs 171, 171 , 172
Haplophryne mollis 183 , 183
haptophytes 80
Harriotta raleighana 170, 171
hatchetfishes 53, 53 , 174, 175, 175
Havre Trough 22, 77
heart urchins 147
hectocotylus 123
Hemichordata 102, 105
hermit crabs 135, 136, 136
heteropods 110, 112, 112
hexacorals 95, 96, 96
Hexactinellida 88, 88
Heyerdahl, Thor 192
Hikurangi Channel 28
Hikurangi Trough 27, 27
Hillea marina 81 , 81
Hippomenella vellicata 153, 153
Hirohito, Emperor of Japan 89, 90
Histioteuthis atlantica 118
hoki 180, 181, 181, 213, 213
Holocephali 162
Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) 147-49
Hoplichthyidae 189
Hoplichthys haswelli 189 , 189
Hoplostethus atlanticus 186 , 186
hula skirt siphonophore 94, 94
humpback whale 39 , 208, 208
humpbacked anglerfish 182, 183
Hyalinoecia 102, 102, 103, 131
Hyalonema 75 , 75, 88, 88
Hydractinia rubricata 135
hydraulics (in echinoderm locomotion) 142, 150
hydrocarbons 78
hydroids 89, 90, 90
Hydrolagus novaezelandiae 170, 170
hydromedusae 90, 91, 93, 93
hydrothermal vents 25 , 75-77, 77, 131,144, 217, 219
Hydrozoa 90-99

Idiacanthus atlanticus 177 , 177
Idioteuthis cordiformis 115, 116
Indo-Australian plate 23 , 29
Ipnopidae 178
isidid corals 98, 98 , 99
Isistius brasiliensis 164 , 164
Isopoda 140, 140
Istiophoridae (marlins) 191
Isurus oxyrinchus 168 , 168
 
Jacquinotia edwardsii 138 , 138, 139
Jakubowski's organs 186
James Cook (research vessel) 135
Janthina 50, 61 , 61, 106 , 106, 107
Jasus edwardsii 133, 133
Jasus verreauxi 134
jellyfish 42, 45, 60, 61, 89 , 90, 91, 93-95, 93
jewelled squid 118

Kaikoura Canyon 26, 26
Karenia brevisulcata 82 , 82
Katsuwonus pelamis 190, 191
Kermadec Ridge 22, 23, 31, 77
Kermadec snailfish 190, 190
Kermadec Trench 23 , 29, 29 , 30, 41, 190
killer whales 202, 203
king crabs 131, 136, 137, 137
Kon-Tiki 192
krill 51 , 131, 132, 132, 206

lace corals 32, 33, 33, 151-53
Lamnidae 166, 168
lamp shells 154, 154 , 155, 155
Lampanyctodes 180
Lampridae 184
Lampriformes 184
lantern shark 163, 164
lanternfish 52 , 179, 180, 180
larvaceans 159, 160
Laticauda colubrina 196
Leachia 49
leatherback turtle 195, 195
leopard chimaera 170
Lepas 61, 61
Lepas australis 129, 129
Lepetella 73, 103, 109
leptocephalus larva 172
Leptochiton subantarcticus 108 , 108
Leucothea 100
light organs (photophores) 52, 52 , 53, 53, 116, 119, 121, 174-77, 179, 180, 182, 183
lightfishes 174
lighthouse fishes 174, 175, 175
Limacina 112
limpets 73, 73, 74 , 103, 109
lion's mane jellyfish 94
Liparididae 190
Lipkius holthuisi 131, 132
Lissodendoryx 219
lithistid sponges 87, 87 , 88, 88
Lithodidae 136
little sleeper shark 165
lizardfishes 178, 179, 179
lobster 132, 133, 133, 134, 135, 138
lobsterette 133
long-finned eel 44long-finned pilot whale 202, 204
long-nosed chimaeras 171
long-nosed skate 168
lookdown dory 188, 189
loosejaw 53, 176, 177, 177
Lophiiformes 182
lophophore 152, 155
Lord Howe Rise 25
Louisville Seamount Chain 29 , 30, 217
Lucifer lantern shark 163
luciferase 52
luciferin 52
Lucinoma galatheae 113, 113
lures (bioluminescent) 119, 182
Lycoteuthis lorigera 117

mackerel sharks 166, 168
Macrocheira kaempferi 138
Macrouridae 182
Macruronus novaezelandiae 180, 181
mahi mahi 192, 192
mako shark 168, 168
Malacosteus niger 53, 176, 177
Malacostraca 131
manganese nodules 36, 36 , 37
Mariana Trench 30, 221
marine reptiles 195, 195 , 196
marine sanctuaries 219
marine snow 70, 71
marlins 191, 191
Maurolicus muelleri 46, 47, 175
Megalocercus 159
Megalocranchia 120
Megaptera novaeangliae 208 , 208
meiofauna 104
Melamphaidae 186
Melanocetus johnsonii 182, 183, 183
Merlucciidae 180
Merluccius australis 180
Mesonychoteuthis 120
mesopelagic zone 40, 40, 49, 50
mesoplankton 41
Mesoplodon densirostris 204
Mesoplodon layardii 204, 204
Metanephrops challengeri 133, 133
methane seeps 77, 78
microbial loop 68
microfossils 85
microhabitats 73, 216
Micromesistius australis 180
Micropilina tangaroa 107
Microporella discors 151
microtektites 36
Millarus diogenes 157, 157
mineral resources 37, 43, 218
minke whale 80 , 206, 207, 207
mirrorbelly 174
Mitsukurina owstoni 165, 165, 166, 166
Mola mola 194, 194
Molidae 194
Mollusca 106-124
mollymawks 197, 198 , 199, 199, 200
molpadiid sea cucumbers 147
Monoplacophora 107
moon snails 110
moonfishes (opahs) 184
Mora moro 180
Moridae 180
Moroteuthis ingens 118, 118, 119 , 119
Moroteuthis robsoni 118
mud 31, 31 , 32, 32
Munida (research vessel) 27, 27 , 222
Munida gregaria 60, 60 , 138, 138, 206, 206
Munidopsis 138
muricid gastropods 110
mussels 77, 77 , 78, 81, 106, 112, 113
Myctophidae 179
Myctophiformes 179
Mysticeti 201, 205

Narkidae 169
NASA 62
Naticidae 110
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) 32, 55, 67, 77, 82, 115, 144, 152, 171, 222
naupliosoma 133
nauplius (crustacean larva) 128
nekton 42
nematodes 102, 104
Nematoscelis megalops 132
nemerteans 102
Nemichthyidae 172
Nemichthys scolopaceus 172, 172, 173 , 173
Neoachiropsetta milfordi 193, 193, 194
Neocalanus tonsus 127-29
Neocyttus rhomboidalis 188, 188
Neolepas osheai 131
Neolithodes brodiei 131, 136, 137, 137
Neomyxine biniplicata 161
Neothyris lenticularis 154, 155, 155
Nephropidae 133
Nephropsis suhmi 133
New Zealand Government Trawling Expedition 221
New Zealand Oceanographic Institute 32, 221, 222
night vision (in fish) 177
NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research) 32, 55, 67, 77, 82, 115, 144, 152, 171, 222
notochord 105, 156
Notoliparis kermadecensis 190, 190
Notoraja 169
Notoraja asperula 169
numbfishes 169
nutrients (in seawater) 25, 57-60, 63, 65-58, 72, 80
Nyctiphanes australis 51, 132, 132

Oamaru Stone 152
oarfish 61, 184, 185
ocean currents (circulation) 53-60, 54 , 218
octocorals 95, 97-99, 98
Octopoteuthis (beak) 11
octopus 114, 121, 121, 122, 123, 124
Odontoceti 201
Oikopleura dioica 159, 160
Oikopleura fusiformis 159
Oneirodes haplonema 182
Oneirophanta mutabilis 29, 147, 148
ontogenetic (developmental) migration 128
oozes 31-36, 32 , 110
oozooids 63, 158, 159
opahs (moon fishes) 184
Ophidiidae 190
Ophiocantha abyssicola 144
Ophiuroidea 144
Opisthoproctidae 174
Opisthoproctus grimaldii 174
Oplophorus novaezeelandiae 53, 131
orange roughy 38 , 50 , 186, 186, 210-19, 211, 212, 216 , 222
orca 68, 202, 203
Orcinus orca 68, 202, 203
oreos 187, 188, 188
Oreosoma atlantica 188
Oreosomatidae 187
ostracods 34, 35, 129, 129
Otago Harbour 60
Otago Shelf 153
Otionellina affinis 153
otoliths 119, 211, 211
ox-eye oreo 188
oxygen (in seawater) 54, 60

Pacific Plate 23 , 28-30
packhorse lobster 134
Paelopatides 149
pagoda shell 110, 111
Paguroidea 135
Palinura 132
paper nautilus 122 , 123
Paragorgia arborea 98, 98, 217
Paralomis zelandica 137, 137
paralytic shellfish poisoning 81, 82
parasitism 128 , 131, 136, 140, 183, 183
particle flux 69-72, 158, 218
Parvamussium maorium 113 , 113
Pasiphaea 127, 131
Paxillosida 143, 143
peanut worms 102
pearlside 46, 47, 175
pedicellariae 142, 146
Pegasus canyon 170
Pegia 158
Pelagothuriidae 149
Pelamis platurus 196
Pelecanoides georgicus 200
Pelecanoides urinatrix 200
Pelecanoididae 200
Penion ormesi 110, 111
penis worms 102, 105, 105
Perciformes 190
petrels 200
Phacellophora 95
phantom anglerfish 183, 183
phosphorite 37, 37, 221
photic zone 40
Photichthys argenteus 175, 175
photophores (light organs) 52, 52, 53, 53, 116, 119, 121, 174-77, 179, 180, 182, 183
photosynthesis 80, 81
Phronimidae 140
Phrynocrinus nudus 149, 150
phyllosomas 133, 133 , 135, 135
Physalia physalis 50, 60, 61, 94, 94, 106
Physeter catodon 204, 205, 205
Physophora hydrostatica 94, 94
phytoflagellates 81, 81
phytoplankton 40, 50, 63, 64 , 65-68, 67, 70, 80-83, 80-83
picoplankton 80
pilot whale 62, 202, 202 , 203
Planes marinus 138
plankton 25, 31-35, 40-42, 48, 50, 53, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65-71, 76, 80-85, 87, 90, 93, 95, 100, 103-05, 110, 112, 126-130, 132, 222
plankton blooms 62, 63, 67
plate tectonics 21, 22, 23, 29 , 29, 78, 222
plateaux 25
Platyctenida 101
platyhelminths 102
Pleurobrachia 101
Pleuromamma abdominalis 127
Pleuronectiformes 193
polychaetes 102-104, 103
Polycheles 132, 133 , 133
Polychelidae 132
Polyplacophora 106, 108
polyps 90, 96-99
Porifera (sponges) 86-88
porpoises 201
Portuguese dogfish 165
Portuguese man-of-war 94, 94
prawn-killers 132, 133
prawns 126
Praya dubia 52, 94
pressure (water) 40, 41, 46-48, 47
Priapulida 102, 105, 105
primary productivity 64 , 65, 66, 76, 80
Prionace glauca 166, 167
Prionorhynchus edwardsii 138
prions 200
Procellariidae 197, 200
Procellariiformes 197
prochlorophytes 80
Projasus parkeri 133
Proneomenia quincarinata 107
Proserpinaster neozelanicus 143, 1 43
Protoctista 84
Protozoa 33, 33 , 34, 34 , 66, 66 , 84, 84 , 85, 85
Provocator mirabilis 110, 111
Pseudocyttus maculatus 188
Psolus neozelanicus 147, 147, 148
Pteroeides bollonsi 99, 99
pteropods 34, 35, 35 , 110, 112, 112
pueruli 135
Puffinus griseus 200, 200
Puffinus tenuirostris 200
pumice 60
Puysegur Trench 29
pycnogonids 125, 125 , 126
pygmy shark 163
pyrosomas 157, 157, 158
Pyrostremma spinosum 157

quill worms 102, 102 , 103, 103, 143
Quota Management System 222

radiolarians 84, 84 , 85
radula 106-108, 110, 112
Rajidae 168
Rakiura (steamer) 221
ram's horn shell 61, 61, 124
ram's horn squid 61, 124, 124
rattails 182, 182
rat-trap fish 176, 177, 177
ray-finned bony fishes 171
rays 161, 162
red coral 91, 91 , 92, 92
red tide 82
red whalefishes 186, 187, 187
red-mouthed whalefishes 187
Regadrella okinoseana 88
Regalecidae 184
Regalecus glesne 184, 185
regurgitations 116, 198
Reidispongia coerulea 88
Reptilia (reptiles) 195, 196
requiem sharks 166
Rhinochimaera pacifica 171
Rhinochimaeridae 171
rhizocephalan barnacles 131, 136
ribaldo 180
ribbon worms 102
Richardson 's skate 168
ridges (sea floor) 22, 23 , 28, 30, 31, 75
Riftia 76, 77
right whales 202, 205, 205
Roaring Forties 55, 56
rock lobster 133, 133, 135, 135
Rondeletiidae 187
rorquals 206-08
roughies 186
roundworms 102, 104
royal albatrosses 197, 197 , 198, 199
Rumble III seamount 144

sabretooths 179, 179
sailfish 19
salinity 43, 44, 54, 56
Salpa fusiformis 63
salps 62, 63, 63, 140, 157-59, 158
saltiness 43, 44, 54, 56
saltwater crocodiles 196
sanctuaries (deep ocean) 219
satellite data 44, 59, 60, 63, 64, 65, 67, 67 , 168, 199, 200
scampi 133, 133
Scaphopoda 108
scleractinian corals 96
Scombridae 190
Scorpaeniformes 189
Scotoplanes globosa 147, 148
SCUBA 221
Scyphozoa 94, 95, 95
sea anemones 25 , 90, 95, 95, 96
sea butterflies 34, 35 , 110, 111
sea cucumbers 29, 29 , 147-149, 147-49
sea daisies 141, 150, 150
sea dragons 177, 177, 178
sea gooseberries 100, 100 , 101, 101
sea lilies 149
sea pens 99, 99
sea pig 148
sea serpent myths 184
sea slugs 50, 50 , 61, 108
sea snakes 196
sea spiders 125, 125 , 126
sea squirts 156-58, 157
sea urchins 141, 144, 146, 146, 147
sea-bed damage 214-219, 216
seal shark 164, 164, 165
seamounts 24, 25, 25 , 28-30, 216-219, 222
sediment cores 34, 34
sediment trap 70, 70
sediments 27, 28, 31-38, 32, 33 , 70-73
sei whale 207
Sepioteuthis australis 114
sex-change (in fish) 174
sexual parasitism (in anglerfishes) 183, 183
sharks 161-166, 163-167 , 168
shearwaters 200, 200
shelf break (continental) 19
short-finned eel 44
short-finned pilot whale 202
short-tailed shearwater 200
shrimp 77, 77 , 88, 127 , 131, 132
silica dioxide (glass) 82, 84, 86
siliceous ooze 33
siphonophores 52, 52 , 94, 94
sipunculids 102
skates 168, 169, 169
skeneimorph gastropods 74
skipjack tuna 190 , 191
sleeper sharks 165, 165
slimeheads 186, 210, 211
Smilium zancleanum 130, 130, 131, 131
smooth oreo 188snaggletooths 176, 176
snailfish 136, 137, 190, 190
snails 34, 35 , 61, 61 , 74, 106, 106, 107 , 108-110, 222
snakestar 97, 97 , 144
Snare's cape pigeon 200
snipe eels 172, 172 , 173, 173
snot eels 161, 162, 162
Solenosmilia variabilis 96, 217
Solmundella bitentaculata 93, 93
Somniosus microcephalus 165
Somniosus pacificus 165, 165
Somniosus rostratus 165
sooty shearwater 200
southern blue whiting 180
southern bluefin tuna 62, 191
southern cape pigeon 200
southern right whales 205, 205, 206
sperm whale 26, 26 , 117-120, 117 , 204, 205 , 221
spermaceti 204
spicules 86-88
spider crabs 138, 138 , 139
spiky oreo 188, 188
Spirula spirula 61, 124, 124
sponges 86-88, 87 , 88 , 103
Spongiocaris yaldwyni 88
spookfishes 171, 174
spoon worms 102
Squaliformes 163
squat lobsters 138, 138
squid 114-121, 114-116 , 118-120 , 124, 222
squid beaks 73, 116, 116 , 118, 120
stalked barnacles 130, 130, 131, 131
starfish 141-144, 142, 143
stinging cells (cnidae) 90
Stomiidae 174
Stomiiformes 174
strap-toothed whale 204, 204
striped marlin 191, 191
Strombidium 66
stylasterine corals 90, 91
Stylocordyla borealis 87, 87
subduction 22, 23 , 30
submarine avalanches 27, 28
submarine cables 27, 166
submarine canyons 25-29
submarines 39, 40, 46, 164
submersibles 13, 39-41, 41 , 46, 75
sulphur-reducing bacteria 76
sunfishes 194, 194
sunlight 40, 41, 49, 53, 55
suspension feeders 75, 126, 144, 217
swim bladder 48, 180, 182
swordfishes 191, 192
Syllis ramosa 103, 103
symbiotic algae 85
symbiotic bacteria 52, 77, 78, 112, 113
Symbolophorus 180, 180
Sympagurus dimorphus 136
Syringammina tasmanensis 34, 34 

Taiaroa tauhou 97, 98
Tam O'Shanter urchins 146
Tangaroa (research vessel) 44, 46, 62, 63, 71 , 74, 219, 222
Taningia danae 115, 116
tectonic plates 21 , 22, 23, 29 , 29 , 78, 222
Teleostei 171
Tentaoculus balantiophaga 74, 74
Terebratulina 155, 155
Tetraodontiformes 194
Tetrapturus audax 191, 191
Teuthowenia pellucida 120
Thalassarche 197
Thalassarche bulleri 198, 200
Thalassarche cauta 199
Thalassarche impavida 198
Thalia democratica 63, 63, 158
Thaliacea 157-59
thermal stratification 63
thermocline 44
three-spined cavoline 110, 112
Thunnus maccoyii 191
tintinnids 84, 85, 85
titore 200, 200
Tomopteris 103, 104, 104
toothed whales 201
toxic algal blooms 81, 82
Trachichthyidae 186
Trachipteridae 184
Trachipterus trachypterus 184, 184
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) 71
trawls 20, 212, 214, 216, 216, 217 , 218, 219
trenches 19 , 22, 23 , 24, 29, 30, 40, 41
Trieste (bathyscaph) 148, 221
tripod fishes 178, 178
trophic levels 66, 68, 69
troughs 22, 27, 28, 32, 77
trumpet shell 110
tube feet (echinoderm) 142, 142 , 143, 144, 148, 149
tubenoses 197-200
tunas 44 , 190, 190 , 191, 212~
turbidity current 26 , 27, 28, 32
turtles 195, 195
tusk shells 108, 108
Typhlonarke 169

UNCLOS treaty 222
Urochordata 156-160

vampire squid 120, 120, 121
Vampyroteuthis infernalis 120, 120, 121
Velella velella 106
Ventrifossa nigromaculata 51
Venus's flower basket 88
Vertebrata 161
vertical migration 44, 46, 48, 94, 174-176, 179
vertical mixing (of oceanic water) 63, 67
Vesicomya 78
Vestimentifera 76-78
violet cod 180
violet snails 50, 61, 61 , 106, 106, 107
violet squid 118
viperfish 175, 176, 176
Vitreledonella richardi 121, 121
Vityaz (research vessel) 30, 41, 221
volcanoes, submarine 23, 25, 30, 77

wandering albatross 13, 197
warty squid 118, 118, 119, 119
water masses (oceanic) 56-58, 60
water temperature 40, 41, 44, 56, 58, 75, 77
weather (interaction with ocean surface) 53, 55, 56
wentletrap 110, 111
whale stomach contents 117-120
whale vocalisations 208
whalebone mussels 74 , 112, 113
whalefeed ( Munida gregaria ) 60, 60, 138, 138 , 206, 206
whalefishes 187
whales 26, 26 , 39 , 117 , 201-208, 202-208
whelks 110
whiptails 181
White Island 74, 76, 222
white-capped mollymawk 199
worms 102-05

xenophyophores 34, 34
Xiphias gladius 191
Xiphiidae 191
Xyloplax medusiformis 150, 150, 222

yellow-bellied sea snake 196

Zeidae 187
Zeiformes 187
Ziphiidae 204
zoanthids 95, 96
zoea larva 138
zooids 90, 94, 151-53, 157
zooplankton 62, 63, 67, 159

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